1. What is a program?
A program is a set of precise instructions telling a computer what to do. It is in fact many things. Typed text that makes the computer do what it does, data in its memory and a control on this very same memory. It can best, but not perfectly, be compared to a machine. There are a lot of parts involved and the best way to make it come together we need to understand how each part interconnect and contribute to the operation of the whole. A program leverages the high calculation speed of the computer and the straightforward things it can do, to do very complicated things.
2. What can you say about complexity in programming?
Computers are dumb, pedantic entities, which makes programming fundamentally tedious and frustrating. However, if the rigor of programming isn’t too strenuous for you it can be rewarding, allowing us to make the computer what it couldn’t do before. It is also a great exercise in abstract thinking. While the fundamental rules are simple and clear, but programs built on top of it tend to set their own rules and complexity. We are building a maze and might get lost in it. The main problem of programming is to keep programs under control. Programming is the skill of controlling complexity
3. What function do programming languages have?
Programming languages help in telling a computer what to do. The first iterations of programs were bits and punch cards, impossible for the average human to read. Programming languages help in making the instructions more readable and easy to write.
None. Java was heavily marketed at the time JS was being introduced and someone thought it was wise to hope on the hype and benefit from the marketing effort of Java.
JS was first developed for the NetScape browser. When other browsers accepted it, a standard document was written on how JS was supposed to work so that other browsers would be talking about the same thing. This is the ECMAScript standard, named after the organization that produced the document. In practice JS and ECMAScript can be used interchangeably, those are basically two names for the same language.