Homework on Stale Blocks

  1. The miners will attach their block in the network and 2 versions of the Blockchain will be available, however only one version will be true and get the network consensus after a next miner attach his block either based on the v1 of blockchain or v2. The block excluded will now be a Stale or Orphaned block and have its transactions sent to the mempool.

  2. A block that was excluded from the Blockchain and had its transactions sent back to the mempool.

  3. Stale Blocks occur when 2 miners, Miner “a” and Miner “b” mine their blocks at same time and link them in the blockchain. If a next block get linked to Miner “a” block the Miner “b” block will be become a Stale Block, excluded and its transactions sent to mempool, the same situation if the next block is linked to Miner “b” block, therefore the Block “a” would be a Stale block.

  4. Its important to wait for 6 confirmations to assure that your transaction doesn’t belong to a Stale Block(Orphaned Block).

  1. Both were added to the blockchain and propagated through the network nodes.
  2. A stale block has been removed from the blockchain because there is an other longer blockchain
  3. As a result of question one.
  4. The transaction can be in a stale block and therefore needs to be written in a new valid block.

What happens in the bitcoin network when two miners solve a block at the same time?
One of those blocks will become a stale block that is dropped from the blockchain. The winner is based on which block gets incorporated into the next successfully mined block.

What is a stale block?
The block dropped from the confirmed blockchain because it was not part of the longest blockchain in terms of Proof of Work difficulty.

How do stale blocks occur?
Stale blocks occur when a block is successfully mined but does not become part of the longest blockchain in terms of difficulty.

Why is it important to wait for more than one block to be confirmed when sending or receiving a transaction?
Because the block may be part of a stale block blockchain, and six confirmations are enough to determine if the block is part of the active blockchain.

What happens in the bitcoin network when two miners solve a block at the same time?

Both chains are valid untill miner nbr 3 adds a valid block to one of the chains, The longest one is the accepted ine by the network.

What is a stale block?
It is a block dropped from the blockchain and returned to the mempool.

How do stale blocks occur?
If 2 miners solving the puzzle at the same time, both chains are valid till miner nbr 3 adds the next valid block to one of the chains. The longest one validated by the network goes.

Why is it important to wait for more than one block to be confirmed when sending or receiving a transaction?

To make sure that your transaction not is dropped from the chain, you wait for 6 more blocks to be sure that your transaction (block) stays in the chain

  1. both blocks will be added, but only the one which will have further blocked linked to it will stay, because blockchain prioritizes longer chains of blocks
    2-3) A block which did not have any succeeding blocks after it and it is now abandoned by the blockchain
    4)Because your transaction might appear in a stale block and it will not go through
  1. When two miners solve a block at the same time, the miner with the block that has the longest chain wins. and the one that loses becomes a stale block.
  2. A stale block is the block that was originally in the blockchain but was rejected because another block with the longest chain mined at the same time has been admitted in the network instead.
    3.Stale blocks occur when two blocks are created at the same time by two miners in possibly two different geographical locations. Let’s say miner A is located in India and has mined a block with color green, and then another miner B in Africa has mined a block with color black. Newer blocks created will start linking the older blocks to form the chain. Those closest to each of the blocks will start joining them. Since a new block is created every 10 minutes on the bitcoin network, at the end of 10 minutes, the block with the longer chain will now be accepted in the network while the one that is rejected will become a stale block.

1.When miners solve a block at the same time they are both valid until another miner picks up one of these, this becomes the longer and valid blockchain

2 .A stale block is a temporary valid block which transactions are returned to the mempool

3.When miners create two valid blocks at the same time and one block or series of blocks are rejected then stale blocks occur

4.It is important to wait for confirmations at least 6 so you are confident that the blockchain has propagated the block globally and your transaction has not been returned to the mempool

  1. What happens in the bitcoin network when two miners solve a block at the same time?
    Two conflicting versions of the blockchain are propagated on the network. Subsequent additions will be made to the longest blockchain, in terms of PoW rather than number of blocks added, until there is consensus across the network as to which blockchain is valid. Once consensus is reached the all other blockchains are ignored.

  2. What is a stale block?
    A stale block is one that was appended to a blockchain which has subsequently been invalidated and dropped.

  3. How do stale blocks occur?
    Blocks will continue to be added to conflicting versions of the blockchain until such time as full consensus is reached across the network. Only blocks appended to the winning blockchain will be validated and those on the losing blockchain will become stale or orphaned.

  4. Why is it important to wait for more than one block to be confirmed when sending or receiving a transaction?
    To confirm which blockchain version has been accepted across the network. It is typical to wait for 6 confirmations before consensus is confirmed.

  1. They both go onto the network until one of the blocks has a new block added to it then the other block will be removed and the transactions in the removed block will go back to the mempool.

  2. A stale block are when 2 blocks are crated at the same time.

  3. When 2 blocks were created at the same time.

  4. To avoid a stale block that has your transaction in it returning to the mempool.

  1. whichever has the longest chain. The blocks that are not accepted become stale blocks
  2. Stale blocks are the blocks that get abandoned when another chain is created but not accepted as the “real” chain.
  3. Stale blocks happen when two miners solve a block at the same time.
  4. So it is safe to assume that the transaction you did in the block doesn’t become stale.

1. What happens in the bitcoin network when two miners solve a block at the same time?
Both blocks get attached to the previous block.

2. What is a stale block?
A valid block that has been rejected from the blockchain because the alternative chain has a longer size.

3. How do stale blocks occur?
When there is a competition between blocks, the next miner decides which one will be incorporated into the blockchain. The other block gets rejected and becomes a stale block.

4. Why is it important to wait for more than one block to be confirmed when sending or receiving a transaction?
Because the block in which our transaction is might become a stale block.

  1. There are, temporarily, two versions of the blockchain.
  2. The block in the version of the blockchain that is, eventually, not chosen to continue as the accepted version.
  3. When the other version of the blockchain has another block confirmed, it becomes longer, and is then the accepted version. The block in the blockchain that is not longer, becomes rejected and transactions are returned to the mempool.
  4. To make sure your transaction becomes part of the accepted version of the blockchain and not returned to the mempool.
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  1. the next block will propagate on one or the other and the transactions in the orphaned block will return to the mempool.

  2. a stale block is one that is not built upon by the following blocks.

3.to allow the network time to establish correct history on chain.

  1. When two miners successfully solved a block at the same time, the blockchain will have two competing blockchains. Any subsequent block appended to either one of the chain, the most POW chain be adopted .The shorter chain with the lesser POW will be dropped and all the un-mined transactions in the block will be returned to their respective mempool to be pick up by miners again.

  2. Stale block or sometimes known as Orphaned block, are blocks that failed to make it to the blockchain even though they are valid blocks. They are blocks that lost out to the other competing chain.

  3. Stale blocks occur because they are unsuccessful in forming the next chain

  4. the importance for waiting out for more block confirmations is that successful blocks can still be dropped at the very initial stage. The more confirmations there are, the more assurance that the block has been adopted in the chain.

  1. Two valid versions of the blockchain come into existence. Nodes closer to one version will accept that as the truth.

  2. A stale block is a block, that gets dropped, meaning that no more blocks will be appended to it. Transactions from a stale block will be returned to the nodes or become invalid (Ivan said both things).

  3. When a blockchain splits into two versions, because of two miners simultaneously finding their block, and then the following block gets appended to just one of the two versions, the other chain ends there resulting in that one block being dropped. It becomes stale or orphaned.

  4. If the transaction gets confirmed by only one block, there is a chance that the block containing your transaction will get dropped. Waiting for several (ideally 6) blocks to confirm your transaction, makes sure your transaction actually belongs to the longest chain and will not be invalidated or returned to the mempool.

  1. Two competing longest chains appeared. Need to wait for the next block to break tie.

  2. It is the block with transactions being returned to mempool because another longest chain found.

  3. So that our transaction is not being rejected due to being mined into a stale block.

1, 2, 3. The bock that gets a new block added will be the winner since it becomes the longest chain, while the other block becomes stale and its TX’s will be dropped back in the mempool.

  1. To make sure all stale blocks are dropped. The network need time to update their copies of the network.
  1. the chain will split in 2 temporarily
    2.a block that gets put back in to the mempool
    3.when a block is added to one of a forked blocks the one thats shortest gets dropped creating a stale block
    4.so there not a chance of a block becoming stale

What happens in the bitcoin network when two miners solve a block at the same time?
The block becomes temporarily forked. The block that is picked up first and built upon becomes the longer chain and therefore the acknowledged truth. The other block is dropped from the chain and becomes invalid. Its transactions are returned to the mempool for processing.

What is a stale block?
A stale block is the duplicated block is one that has been dropped from the chain due to simultaneous processing but failure to build upon in a timely fashion to be come the recognized chain continuation.

How do stale blocks occur?
When 2 miners process a block simultaneously and temporary fork occurs. The chain will continue and recognize the longest part of the chain, therefore the block built upon first becomes incorporated in the chain and the one not built upon becomes the stale block. That block is dropped and its transactions return to the mempool for processing into a new block.

Why is it important to wait for more than one block to be confirmed when sending or receiving a transaction?
There is a chance that your pending transaction could be part of a simultaneously produced block scenario. If so, it could be that the block is dropped and becomes a stale block. These transactions are invalidated and sent to the mempool for processing again. 6 confirmations signify a confirmed transaction.

1 Nesse caso existirão duas versões diferentes da blockchain, que serão propagadas pela rede. Eventualmente uma das duas versões se tornará mais longa, conforme novos blocos forem criados e de acordo com a versão adotada pelo minerador.

2 É um bloco que em algum momento foi considerado a versão correta da blockchain, mas por não fazer parte da versão mais longa foi desconsiderado pela rede.

3 Quando dois ou mais mineradores mineram seus blocos em tempos muito próximos, irão eventualmente gerar duas ou mais versões corretas e paralelas da blockchain, os nodes vão aceitar a versão que for propagada a eles em primeiro momento. Quando a versão mais longa da blockchain for escolhida e aceita pelos nodes, a(s) versão(ões) menos longa(s) será(ão) abandonada(as) e seu(s) respectivo(s) bloco(s) será(ão) considerado(s) como stale block(s).

4 Para garantir que a transação não volte ao mempool, no caso de um stale block, é seguro aguardar algumas confirmações.